Difference between revisions of "Computing"

From NikkiWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(desktop operating systems)
(desktop operating systems)
 
(5 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 10: Line 10:
 
(Note that 32-bit operating systems cannot access more than 4 GB of RAM even if it is installed and available.) <ref><code>[[wikipedia:3-GB barrier]]</code></ref>
 
(Note that 32-bit operating systems cannot access more than 4 GB of RAM even if it is installed and available.) <ref><code>[[wikipedia:3-GB barrier]]</code></ref>
  
If you are installing a virtual operating system, then your host operating system should have at least twice the above specifications.  For example, allocating at least 4 GB RAM to a 64-bit guest OS and at least 4 GB RAM to a 64-bit host OS requires at least 8 GB total RAM on the host OS.  Also, for general use, you should always try to have twice whatever the minimum recommendation is, so if you need a minimum of 8 GB RAM to run a 64-bit guest OS on a 64-bit host OS, then the optimum RAM you need is 16 GB.  Likewise, if 64 GB of drive storage is allocated to a 64-bit guest OS, then you should also have an additional 64 GB of drive storage available for your 64-bit host OS, making a minimum of 128 GB of drive storage needed, and an optimum of 256 GB of drive storage needed.  For an internal [[wikipedia:hard disk drive|hard disk drive]] (HDD) running Microsoft Windows 10, I would additionally recommend to add at least twice the maximum system RAM in [[wikipedia:Windows ReadyBoost|Windows ReadyBoost]] capacity over [[wikipedia:USB 3|Universal Serial Bus Three]] (USB 3).  For a desktop Linux installation (virtual or physical), you should likewise set the [[wikipedia:Linux swap|swap space]] to at least twice the maximum system RAM.  For my Windows 10 desktop computer, I use 64 GB of ReadyBoost with 32 GB of system RAM.  For my [[wikipedia:Linux Mint|Linux Mint]] desktop computer, I use 16 GB of swap space with 8 GB of system RAM.  For a typical 64-bit Linux virtual machine, I use 8 GB of swap space (on a virtual drive of up to 64 GB) with 4 GB of system RAM allocated for the guest operating system.
+
If you are installing a virtual operating system, then your host operating system should have at least twice the above specifications.  For example, allocating at least 4 GB RAM to a 64-bit guest OS and at least 4 GB RAM to a 64-bit host OS requires at least 8 GB total RAM on the host OS.  Also, for general use, you should always try to have twice whatever the minimum recommendation is, so if you need a minimum of 8 GB RAM to run a 64-bit guest OS on a 64-bit host OS, then the optimum RAM you need is 16 GB.  Likewise, if 64 GB of drive storage is allocated to a 64-bit guest OS, then you should also have an additional 64 GB of drive storage available for your 64-bit host OS, making a minimum of 128 GB of drive storage needed, and an optimum of 256 GB of drive storage needed.  For an internal [[wikipedia:hard disk drive|hard disk drive]] (HDD) running Microsoft Windows 10, I would additionally recommend to add at least twice the maximum system RAM in [[wikipedia:Windows ReadyBoost|Windows ReadyBoost]] capacity over [[wikipedia:USB 3|Universal Serial Bus Three]] (USB 3).  For a desktop Linux installation (virtual or physical), you should likewise set the [[wikipedia:Linux swap|swap space]] to at least twice the maximum system RAM.  For my Windows 10 [[wikipedia:desktop computer|desktop computer]], I use 64 GB of ReadyBoost with 32 GB of system RAM.  For my [[wikipedia:Linux Mint|Linux Mint]] desktop computer, I use 16 GB of swap space with 8 GB of system RAM.  For a typical 64-bit Linux virtual machine, I use 8 GB of swap space (on a virtual drive of up to 64 GB) with 4 GB of system RAM allocated for the guest operating system.
  
The chart below shows my recommendations for RAM capacity versus drive capacity (hard-disk, [[wikipedia:solid-state drive|solid-state]], or virtual).  This is what I personally like to use, primarily for virtual operating systems, and your specific needs may be different.  Remember that hard-disk drives should not be filled beyond 90% capacity at maximum (80% capacity at optimum), and solid-state drives should not be filled beyond 80% capacity at maximum (50% capacity at optimum).  If you plan to use an [[wikipedia:optical drive|optical drive]], then you should also have twice the maximum [[wikipedia:optical disc|disc]] capacity available as free space on your operating-system drive.  For a [[wikipedia:Blu-Ray|Blu-Ray]] Disc XL (BDXL) drive (up to 100 GB per disc), this means that you should keep at least 200 GB free on your operating-system drive at all times (at least 40% free space for a 500-GB drive, 20% free space for a 1-TB drive, or 10% free space for a 2-TB drive).  For the best experience with optical discs, I also wouldn't recommend less RAM than the smallest single disc layer: 1 GB RAM for [[wikipedia:compact discs|compact discs]] (CDs), 8 GB RAM for [[wikipedia:digital versatile discs|digital versatile discs]] (DVDs), or 32 GB RAM for bluray discs (BDs).
+
The chart below shows my recommendations for RAM capacity versus drive capacity (hard-disk, [[wikipedia:solid-state drive|solid-state]], or virtual).  This is what I personally like to use, primarily for virtual operating systems, and your specific needs may be different.  Remember that hard-disk drives should not be filled beyond 90% capacity at maximum (80% capacity at optimum), and solid-state drives should not be filled beyond 80% capacity at maximum (50% capacity at optimum).  If you plan to use an [[wikipedia:optical drive|optical drive]], then you should also have twice the maximum [[wikipedia:optical disc|disc]] capacity available as free space on your operating-system drive.  For a [[wikipedia:Blu-Ray|Blu-Ray]] Disc XL (BDXL) drive (up to 100 GB per disc), this means that you should keep at least 200 GB free on your operating-system drive at all times (at least 40% free space for a 500-GB drive, 20% free space for a 1-TB drive, or 10% free space for a 2-TB drive).  For the best experience with [[wikipedia:optical discs|optical discs]], I also wouldn't recommend less RAM than the smallest single disc layer: 1 GB RAM for [[wikipedia:compact discs|compact discs]] (CDs), 8 GB RAM for [[wikipedia:digital versatile discs|digital versatile discs]] (DVDs), or 32 GB RAM for bluray discs (BDs).
  
 
{|class="wikitable"
 
{|class="wikitable"
Line 73: Line 73:
 
To determine how much RAM you really need, you need to add up the RAM usage for all the processes and applications you wish to run in parallel.  The 64-bit Windows 10 operating system alone (without any running applications) needs at least 2 GB of RAM.  Running Bitdefender antimalware in the background requires an additional 2 GB of RAM at least.  So that is a minimum of 4 GB RAM needed just for the operating system and antimalware, with no other applications running.  Other background processes and applications will add more RAM needed, as well as foreground applications.  Required RAM can add up easily, especially if you want to multitask.  When you run out of RAM, your computer will lock up or crash, so try not to run more applications than your RAM can afford (you can keep track of RAM usage with your [[wikipedia:task manager|task manager]]).
 
To determine how much RAM you really need, you need to add up the RAM usage for all the processes and applications you wish to run in parallel.  The 64-bit Windows 10 operating system alone (without any running applications) needs at least 2 GB of RAM.  Running Bitdefender antimalware in the background requires an additional 2 GB of RAM at least.  So that is a minimum of 4 GB RAM needed just for the operating system and antimalware, with no other applications running.  Other background processes and applications will add more RAM needed, as well as foreground applications.  Required RAM can add up easily, especially if you want to multitask.  When you run out of RAM, your computer will lock up or crash, so try not to run more applications than your RAM can afford (you can keep track of RAM usage with your [[wikipedia:task manager|task manager]]).
  
Laptops are quicker and easier to overheat, especially when they have a dedicated [[wikipedia:graphics processing unit|graphics processing unit]] (GPU), so it can be better to invest in system RAM for [[wikipedia:shared graphics|shared graphics]] on a laptop instead of having an internal GPU.  Total RAM can be considered to be equal to the quantity of system RAM plus the quantity of dedicated graphics RAM, so you can replace a dedicated GPU by getting more system RAM instead (though this is less efficient for the [[wikipedia:central processing unit|central processing unit]] [CPU]).  But then you can use the money saved by not having a dedicated GPU on a laptop to get a desktop computer with dedicated graphics instead (which is cheaper).  Do your graphics-intensive work (and gaming) on the desktop computer if possible, and only use the laptop for travel or as a secondary computer.  This will allow your computers to last longer as well, since it is easier to keep a desktop computer cool (overheating is one of the most common causes of computer failure).  Note also that you can add an external GPU to nearly any laptop (or desktop) with a port of [[wikipedia:Thunderbolt 3|Thunderbolt 3]] or faster, which avoids the heating issues of having an internal GPU on a laptop.
+
[[wikipedia:laptops|Laptops]] are quicker and easier to overheat, especially when they have a dedicated [[wikipedia:graphics processing unit|graphics processing unit]] (GPU), so it can be better to invest in system RAM for [[wikipedia:shared graphics|shared graphics]] on a laptop instead of having an internal GPU.  Total RAM can be considered to be equal to the quantity of system RAM plus the quantity of dedicated graphics RAM, so you can replace a dedicated GPU by getting more system RAM instead (though this is less efficient for the [[wikipedia:central processing unit|central processing unit]] [CPU]).  But then you can use the money saved by not having a dedicated GPU on a laptop to get a desktop computer with dedicated graphics instead (which is often cheaper).  Do your graphics-intensive work (and gaming) on the desktop computer if possible, and only use the laptop for travel or as a secondary computer.  This will allow your computers to last longer as well, since it is easier to keep a desktop computer cool (overheating is one of the most common causes of computer failure).  Note that you can add an external GPU to nearly any laptop (or desktop) with a port of [[wikipedia:Thunderbolt 3|Thunderbolt 3]] or faster, which avoids the heating issues of having an internal GPU on a laptop. <ref><code>[[wikipedia:external GPU]]</code></ref>  You should always have at least twice as much system RAM as you have in dedicated graphics RAM. <ref><code>https://www.pcgamer.com/best-gpu-2016/</code></ref>
 +
 
 +
If you are installing new RAM onto a system, you should always use identical matching RAM cards if possible.  Don't mix up different RAM cards in a single system if you can avoid it. <ref><code>https://www.makeuseof.com/tag/myths-misconceptions-about-ram/</code></ref>  Because of this, you should try to get a system preinstalled with the RAM you want, or gauge the cost of (for example) replacing one preinstalled RAM card with two new cards for an upgrade.  For me, buying two new 16-GB RAM cards to replace a preinstalled 8-GB RAM card (with only two RAM card slots on the [[wikipedia:motherboard|motherboard]]) was cheaper than trying to get a desktop computer with 32 GB of preinstalled RAM.  Make sure to use up all of the available RAM card slots if you can.  So if you need 32 GB of RAM and have four RAM card slots, then you should get four 8-GB RAM cards. <ref><code>https://www.makeuseof.com/tag/ram-for-gamers-what-do-the-specs-mean-and-how-do-they-alter-performance/</code></ref>
  
 
== mobile operating systems ==
 
== mobile operating systems ==

Latest revision as of 2020-05-02T18:24:06

Some recommendations on choosing hardware specifications for computers.

desktop operating systems

When installing either a physical or virtual modern desktop operating system (OS) such as Debian-based Linux or Microsoft Windows Ten (10), I recommend the following:

  • for a 32-bit desktop operating system, a minimum of at least 2 gigabytes (GB) of random access memory (RAM) and a minimum (physical or virtual) drive storage of at least 32 gigabytes, and
  • for a 64-bit desktop operating system, a minimum of at least 4 gigabytes of random access memory and a minimum drive storage of at least 64 gigabytes. [1] [2] [3]

(Note that 32-bit operating systems cannot access more than 4 GB of RAM even if it is installed and available.) [4]

If you are installing a virtual operating system, then your host operating system should have at least twice the above specifications. For example, allocating at least 4 GB RAM to a 64-bit guest OS and at least 4 GB RAM to a 64-bit host OS requires at least 8 GB total RAM on the host OS. Also, for general use, you should always try to have twice whatever the minimum recommendation is, so if you need a minimum of 8 GB RAM to run a 64-bit guest OS on a 64-bit host OS, then the optimum RAM you need is 16 GB. Likewise, if 64 GB of drive storage is allocated to a 64-bit guest OS, then you should also have an additional 64 GB of drive storage available for your 64-bit host OS, making a minimum of 128 GB of drive storage needed, and an optimum of 256 GB of drive storage needed. For an internal hard disk drive (HDD) running Microsoft Windows 10, I would additionally recommend to add at least twice the maximum system RAM in Windows ReadyBoost capacity over Universal Serial Bus Three (USB 3). For a desktop Linux installation (virtual or physical), you should likewise set the swap space to at least twice the maximum system RAM. For my Windows 10 desktop computer, I use 64 GB of ReadyBoost with 32 GB of system RAM. For my Linux Mint desktop computer, I use 16 GB of swap space with 8 GB of system RAM. For a typical 64-bit Linux virtual machine, I use 8 GB of swap space (on a virtual drive of up to 64 GB) with 4 GB of system RAM allocated for the guest operating system.

The chart below shows my recommendations for RAM capacity versus drive capacity (hard-disk, solid-state, or virtual). This is what I personally like to use, primarily for virtual operating systems, and your specific needs may be different. Remember that hard-disk drives should not be filled beyond 90% capacity at maximum (80% capacity at optimum), and solid-state drives should not be filled beyond 80% capacity at maximum (50% capacity at optimum). If you plan to use an optical drive, then you should also have twice the maximum disc capacity available as free space on your operating-system drive. For a Blu-Ray Disc XL (BDXL) drive (up to 100 GB per disc), this means that you should keep at least 200 GB free on your operating-system drive at all times (at least 40% free space for a 500-GB drive, 20% free space for a 1-TB drive, or 10% free space for a 2-TB drive). For the best experience with optical discs, I also wouldn't recommend less RAM than the smallest single disc layer: 1 GB RAM for compact discs (CDs), 8 GB RAM for digital versatile discs (DVDs), or 32 GB RAM for bluray discs (BDs).

bits RAM (GB) drive (GB)
32 2 32
64 4 64
64 8 128
64 16 256
64 32 512

If you need graphics support for tasks such as screenrecording, video editing, three-dimensional computer-aided design (3D CAD), gaming, etcetera, I recommend the following minimum hardware specifications (based on the minimum hardware specifications needed to run Microsoft Windows 10, Bitdefender, and Blender):

  • at least 256 GB of drive storage (such as a 500-GB drive), and
  • at least 16 GB of system RAM, or at least 8 GB of system RAM plus at least 1 GB of dedicated graphics RAM. [5] [6]

Remember though that for optimum performance, you should always try to get at least twice the recommended minimum, or:

  • at least 512 GB of drive storage (such as a 1-TB drive), and
  • at least 32 GB of system RAM, or at least 16 GB of system RAM plus at least 2 GB of dedicated graphics RAM.

For strong graphics support, I recommend what I personally use on my desktop computer, which is:

  • at least 512 GB of drive storage (such as a 1-TB drive), and
  • at least 32 GB of system RAM, and
  • at least 4 GB of dedicated graphics RAM.

For bare minimum specs on a laptop:

  • at least 128 GB of drive storage (such as a 250-GB drive), and
  • at least 8 GB of system RAM.

For recommended minimum specs on a laptop:

  • at least 256 GB of drive storage (such as a 500-GB drive), and
  • at least 16 GB of system RAM.

For optimum specs on a laptop:

  • at least 512 GB of drive storage (such as a 1-TB drive), and
  • at least 32 GB of system RAM.

To determine how much RAM you really need, you need to add up the RAM usage for all the processes and applications you wish to run in parallel. The 64-bit Windows 10 operating system alone (without any running applications) needs at least 2 GB of RAM. Running Bitdefender antimalware in the background requires an additional 2 GB of RAM at least. So that is a minimum of 4 GB RAM needed just for the operating system and antimalware, with no other applications running. Other background processes and applications will add more RAM needed, as well as foreground applications. Required RAM can add up easily, especially if you want to multitask. When you run out of RAM, your computer will lock up or crash, so try not to run more applications than your RAM can afford (you can keep track of RAM usage with your task manager).

Laptops are quicker and easier to overheat, especially when they have a dedicated graphics processing unit (GPU), so it can be better to invest in system RAM for shared graphics on a laptop instead of having an internal GPU. Total RAM can be considered to be equal to the quantity of system RAM plus the quantity of dedicated graphics RAM, so you can replace a dedicated GPU by getting more system RAM instead (though this is less efficient for the central processing unit [CPU]). But then you can use the money saved by not having a dedicated GPU on a laptop to get a desktop computer with dedicated graphics instead (which is often cheaper). Do your graphics-intensive work (and gaming) on the desktop computer if possible, and only use the laptop for travel or as a secondary computer. This will allow your computers to last longer as well, since it is easier to keep a desktop computer cool (overheating is one of the most common causes of computer failure). Note that you can add an external GPU to nearly any laptop (or desktop) with a port of Thunderbolt 3 or faster, which avoids the heating issues of having an internal GPU on a laptop. [7] You should always have at least twice as much system RAM as you have in dedicated graphics RAM. [8]

If you are installing new RAM onto a system, you should always use identical matching RAM cards if possible. Don't mix up different RAM cards in a single system if you can avoid it. [9] Because of this, you should try to get a system preinstalled with the RAM you want, or gauge the cost of (for example) replacing one preinstalled RAM card with two new cards for an upgrade. For me, buying two new 16-GB RAM cards to replace a preinstalled 8-GB RAM card (with only two RAM card slots on the motherboard) was cheaper than trying to get a desktop computer with 32 GB of preinstalled RAM. Make sure to use up all of the available RAM card slots if you can. So if you need 32 GB of RAM and have four RAM card slots, then you should get four 8-GB RAM cards. [10]

mobile operating systems

I recommend using only Google Android Linux for mobile computing. Google Android Ten (10) needs at least 1.824 GB of RAM to run, so I would not recommend using less than 2 GB of RAM to run a supported version of Google Android. [11] For internal storage capacity, I would not recommend less than 32 GB. Lots of RAM is not necessary in a mobile operating system, since mobile operating systems are optimized for low resource utilization, and mobile applications are designed to be run in series instead of in parallel. My Lenovo Motorola Moto X4 Android One Edition runs Android 9.0 Pie with 3 GB of RAM and 32 GB of internal storage without any issues.

references

  1. https://www.microsoft.com/windows/windows-10-specifications/
  2. https://blog.linuxmint.com/?p=3832
  3. https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Installation/SystemRequirements/
  4. wikipedia:3-GB barrier
  5. https://www.bitdefender.com/solutions/total-security.html#system-requirements
  6. https://www.blender.org/download/requirements/
  7. wikipedia:external GPU
  8. https://www.pcgamer.com/best-gpu-2016/
  9. https://www.makeuseof.com/tag/myths-misconceptions-about-ram/
  10. https://www.makeuseof.com/tag/ram-for-gamers-what-do-the-specs-mean-and-how-do-they-alter-performance/
  11. https://source.android.com/compatibility/android-cdd/