A "/robots.txt" file instructs robot users how to access your website but it's also nice to have a "/humans.txt" file available for your human users. [7]  The HUMANS ("we are people, not machines") website protocol will tell human visitors about the human(s) that built the website.

[Image.].  Are you human?  HUMANS is a website protocol written by humans for humans.  As of 2022, about forty percent of internet traffic was from robots. [1]  Photo of the human-looking Actroid robot from Osaka University in Japan. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]



As with all webtext files, you should use an advanced text editor such as Notepad-Plus-Plus (not Microsoft Windows Notepad). [8]  Files should be saved with Unix line endings and UTF-8 (Unicode Transformation Format Eight-Bit) character encoding.


"humans.txt" should be saved to the root webdirectory ("/") together with "/robots.txt", "/sitemap.txt", and "/security.txt".


Nicole Sharp's Website

"/humans.txt" for Nicole Sharp's Website.

/* TEAM */
Admin: Nicole Sharp
Site: https://www.nicolesharp.net/
Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/nicolesharp100/
Location: Cumberland, Allegany, Maryland, United States of America (US/USA)

/* THANKS */
Allegany.EDU: https://www.allegany.edu/
FileZilla: https://www.filezilla-project.org/
Frostburg.EDU: https://www.frostburg.edu/
GIMP: https://www.gimp.org/
Google: https://www.google.com/
HighlightJS: https://www.highlightjs.org/
HumansTXT: https://humanstxt.org/
Inkscape: https://www.inkscape.org/
IrfanView: https://www.irfanview.com/
Matomo: https://www.matomo.org/
Microsoft: https://www.microsoft.com/
Mozilla: https://www.mozilla.org/
Notepad-Plus-Plus: https://www.notepad-plus-plus.org/
Oracle: https://www.oracle.com/
PDFSAM: https://www.pdfsam.org/
PHP: https://www.php.net/
RobotsTXT: https://www.robotstxt.org/
SecurityTXT: https://www.securitytxt.org/
Sitemaps: https://www.sitemaps.org/
Sumatra PDF Reader: https://www.sumatrapdfreader.org/
W3C: https://www.w3.org/
WHATWG: https://www.whatwg.org/
Wikimedia: https://www.wikimedia.org/
Yandex: https://www.yandex.com/

/* SITE */
Last update: 2023
Language: English (EN/ENG)
Software: Microsoft Windows, Notepad-Plus-Plus, FileZilla, Matomo, Wikimedia MediaWiki, HighlightJS, PDFSAM, Sumatra PDF Reader, Inkscape, GIMP, IrfanView


"TEAM" provides contact info for the human development team (you).

/* TEAM */
Title: Name
Site: URL
Twitter: URL
Location: City, County, State, Country (ISO3166Alpha2/ISO3166Alpha3)

I recommend including the translingual two-letter and three-letter ISO 3166 country codes for non-English speakers.

Additional URLs (uniform resource locators) to social media webprofiles can be added as desired.


"THANKS" gives thanks to anyone who helped you build the website.  I use this field to give thanks to organizations and corporations that have provided free software to help me build the website.

/* THANKS */
Name: URL
Name: URL


"SITE" provides additional information about the website.

/* SITE */
Last update: Year
Language: LanguageName (ISO639-1/ISO639-3)
Software: Application, Application

"Last update" should be year-only to avoid confusion between whether this refers to the last update of "/humans.txt" or the last update of the website ("/*").  Content on the website may be being updated every day, but you shouldn't have to update "/humans.txt" that often.

I recommend including the translingual two-letter and three-letter ISO 639 language codes for non-English speakers.


The HUMANS protocol doesn't formally specify a way to add comments.  CSS-style comment notation is already used for the section titles.  Since this is a protocol designed to be read by humans and not by machines, you should have considerable flexibility to modify the syntax of "/humans.txt" however you like as long as the content is understandable by humans (there is already a machine-readable "/robots.txt" for the bots).  If you need to add a comment, I recommend to use the same comment notation from the ROBOTS and SECURITY protocols with each comment on a new line beginning with a hash ("#"). [9] [10]

# A comment.


HUMANS can be added to the Robots Exclusion Protocol ("/robots.txt") as a comment ("#"). [11] [12]  An example Robots Exclusion Protocol with HUMANS is given below.

User-agent: *
Sitemap: https://www.example.net/sitemap.txt
# Security: https://www.example.net/security.txt
# Humans: https://www.example.net/humans.txt


Add the following LINK element inside your HEAD element.

<link rel="author" type="text/plain" href="/humans.txt" />

I use the following elements for author attribution of my HTML (hypertext markup language) pages.

<meta name="author" content="Nicole Sharp" />
<link rel="author" type="text/html" href="/wiki/Nicole_Sharp" />
<link rel="author" type="text/plain" href="/humans.txt" />



On Wikimedia MediaWiki, elements for author attribution are added to "LocalSettings.php" using HeadScript.

wfLoadExtension( 'HeadScript' );
$wgHeadScriptCode = <<<'START_END_MARKER'
<meta name="author" content="Nicole Sharp" />
<link rel="author" type="text/html" href="/wiki/Nicole_Sharp" />
<link rel="author" type="text/plain" href="/humans.txt" />
# https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:HeadScript


To add the "humans.txt" footer icon to MediaWiki, add the following to "LocalSettings.php" after copying the icon to "/w/resources/assets/".

$wgFooterIcons['poweredby']['myicon'] = [
	"src" => "$wgResourceBasePath/resources/assets/humanstxt-cc-by-nc-sa.gif",
	"url" => "/humans.txt",
	"alt" => "HUMANS.TXT",
# https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/$wgFooterIcons

You can also replace "$wgResourceBasePath/resources/assets/humanstxt-cc-by-nc-sa.gif" with either of the following links.  This is not recommended and you should load the icon locally if possible.

Note that the "humans.txt" footer icon is under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA) 3.0 Unported License so this icon cannot be used on commercial or for-profit websites.  To avoid any confusion about this license, which is not compatible for use on Wikimedia sites (despite being nonprofit), you should make sure that "cc-by-nc-sa" is in the filename itself so that the license stays attached to the filename if the file is downloaded or copied.

see also


  1. https://www.imperva.com/resources/reports/2022-Imperva-Bad-Bot-Report.pdf
  2. commons:category:robots
  3. commons:category:humanoid robots
  4. commons:category:gynoids
  5. commons:category:Actroid
  6. wikipedia:Actroid
  7. https://humanstxt.org/
  8. https://www.notepad-plus-plus.org/
  9. https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc9309
  10. https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc9116
  12. https://www.robotstxt.org/


development, HUMANS, humans.txt, ROBOTS, robots.txt, TXT, webdevelopment