Difference between revisions of "Storage media"

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My recommendation for general-purpose home computer data storage is to always use hard-disk drives (HDDs).  Hard-disk drives have the lowest cost per gigabyte, and are the easiest to use and manage.  Regular defragmentation and disk checks keep your hard-disk drives in working order, and can predict when a failure might be imminent.  Always remember to back up your data regularly.  Solid-state drives (SSDs) are just not as reliable, and with frequent use, do not last as long as hard-disk drives do, in addition to costing more per gigabyte.  I would only recommend solid-state drives for mobile or rugged use since they are less sensitive to vibrations and use less electrical power to operate.  Solid-state drives have become popular in computers since they have faster read/write speeds than hard-disk drives, but they still cost more, do not last as long, and are less reliable.  I have never had any problems with computer performance when using hard-disk drives, especially when boosted with Windows ReadyBoost on Universal Serial Bus (USB) 3.
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My recommendation for general-purpose home [[wikipedia:computer data storage|computer data storage]] is to always use [[wikipedia:hard disk drives|hard disk drives]] (HDDs).  As of May 2020, hard disk drives typically have the lowest cost per gigabyte, and are the easiest to use and manage.  Regular [[wikipedia:defragmentation|defragmentation]] and disk checks keep your hard disk drives in working order, and can predict when a failure might be imminent.  Always remember to back up your data regularly.  [[wikipedia:solid-state drives|Solid-state drives]] (SSDs) are just not as reliable, and with frequent use, do not last as long as hard disk drives do, in addition to often costing more per gigabyte.  I would only recommend solid-state drives for mobile or rugged use since they are less sensitive to vibrations and use less electrical power to operate.  Solid-state drives have become popular in computers since they have faster read/write speeds than hard disk drives do, but they still cost more, do not last as long, and are less reliable.  I have never had any problems with computer performance when using hard disk drives, especially when boosted with [[wikipedia:Microsoft Windows ReadyBoost|Microsoft Windows ReadyBoost]] on [[wikipedia:USB 3|Universal Serial Bus Three]] (USB 3).
  
For permanent archival storage, optical discs are the cheapest option, and the only option available for nonrewritable data storage.  Optical discs have the lowest cost per gigabyte after hard-disk drives, and for millennial discs (M-discs), the lowest cost per gigabyte per year of data storage (M-discs are guaranteed to last for one thousand years or more, whereas hard-disk drives have to be replaced every five to ten years or so)Blu-Ray M-discs are the best choice of format for permanent archival storage of your most critical data (such as photos or essays), but regular Blu-Ray discs are still the second-best choiceAs compared to compact discs (CDs) and digital versatile discs (DVDs), Blu-Ray discs (BDs) have a lower cost per gigabyte, a higher storage capacity per disc, a faster read/write speed, and a longer lifetime per disc (for any Blu-Ray, not just M-discs)A single Blu-Ray disc can hold up to one terabyte (TB) of data, but commercially available Blu-Ray discs are only available in sizes of up to 100 gigabytes (GB) per disc.  Note that a single BDXL (Blu-Ray Disc XL) of 100 GB can still be cheaper per gigabyte than a similarly-sized flash drive, flash card, or solid-state drive.
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You should be able to differentiate your storage media between temporary or short-term data storage and long-term or permanent data storage.  [[wikipedia:USB flash storage drives|USB flash storage drives]] and [[wikipedia:flash storage cards|flash storage cards]] (such as [[wikipedia:Secure Digital|Secure Digital]] [SD] cards) are often the most expensive storage media to use in cost per gigabyte, but their compact size and ruggedness makes them convenient for mobile use when you want to temporarily store dataA common use for these types of storage media is to transfer files (such as digital photographs) between devicesRewritable [[wikipedia:optical discs|optical discs]] and [[wikipedia:floppy disks|floppy disks]] are likewise best used for temporary or short-term data storageI would not recommend using solid-state drives (including flash storage drives) for permanent data storage.
  
Choosing a brand for hard-disk drives, solid-state drives, flash drives, or flash cards is mostly a matter of preferenceA popular and well-established brand such as Western Digital (who also owns SanDisk) or Seagate is a good choice.  For mobile devices (including cameras), I exclusively use SanDisk flash cards.  For flash drives, I primarily use SanDisk. For hard-disk drives, I use Seagate, Western Digital, and Toshiba. For optical discs though, one brand does stand out above the rest, which is Verbatim. Verbatim holds a number of exclusive patents and licenses that sets its optical discs above the rest, and is one of only a very small number of manufacturers of M-discs.  Verbatim was purchased in 2020 by CMC Magnetics, who also manufactures the optical discs branded for Hewlett-Packard (HP), Staples, Office Depot, Memorex, and Philips (amongst others).  The main advantage of Verbatim discs is in the use of their patented azo dye, which allows discs to last longer.  However, not all Verbatim-branded discs actually use the azo dye, and they need to be branded as "Azo" or "DataLifePlus" to incorporate this technology (typically at additional cost compared to the non-azo discs). Verbatim Blu-Ray discs use a different life-extending technology called HardCoat, which is available on all Verbatim Blu-Ray discs. Verbatim also manufactures gold-based CDs and DVDs that are guaranteed to last for one hundred years or more (azo discs will not last that long), but Blu-Ray M-discs are cheaper per gigabyte, and last ten times as long (thousands instead of hundreds of years).
+
For permanent archival storage, optical discs can be the cheapest option in cost per gigabyte per year, and are the only option available for nonrewritable data storage.  As of May 2020, optical discs typically have the lowest cost per gigabyte after hard disk drives, and for [[wikipedia:millennial discs|millennial discs]] (M-discs), the lowest cost per gigabyte per year of data storageM-discs are designed to last for up to one thousand years or more, whereas hard disk drives typically have to be replaced every five to ten years or so. <ref><code>[[wikipedia:M-disc]]</code></ref> <ref><code>https://www.verbatim.com/subcat/optical-media/m-disc/</code></ref> I would recommend single-layer [[wikipedia:bluray|bluray]] M-discs as the best choice of format for permanent archival storage of your most critical data (such as photos or essays), but regular (nonmillennial) single-layer bluray discs are still the second best choiceWhen compared to [[wikipedia:compact discs|compact discs]] (CDs) and [[wikipedia:digital versatile discs|digital versatile discs]] (DVDs), bluray discs (BDs) have the lowest cost per gigabyte, the lowest cost per gigabyte per year, the highest storage capacity per disc, the fastest read/write speeds, and the longest lifetimes per disc (for any bluray discs, not just bluray M-discs).  A single bluray disc can hold terabytes of data, but commercially available bluray discs are only available in sizes of up to 100 gigabytes (GB) per disc. <ref><code>[[wikipedia:bluray]]</code></ref> <ref><code>https://www.verbatim.com/subcat/optical-media/blu-ray/</code></ref> Note that a single BDXL (Blu-Ray Disc XL) of 100 GB can still be cheaper per gigabyte than a similarly-sized USB flash storage drive, flash storage card, or solid-state drive.
  
Remember that for archival storage, you should never label your discsPlace the discs into a standard-sized jewel case (not a "slim" jewel case) and use a sticky note to label the case instead. Inkjet-printable discs should not be used for archival storage.  For non-archival storage, the only methods that are safe to label a disc with are either using an inkjet-printable disc or using a water-based marker labeled as safe for optical discs (<em>not</em> a Sharpie or other non-water-based permanent marker!)Remember to never leave optical discs inside a vehicle, or exposed to heatKeep the disc inside a sealed container such as a jewel case or a CD binder whenever it is not in useI only trust Case Logic ProSleeves for binder storage, but jewel cases are still much safer to useNever use CD binders or paper sleeves for archival storage. Never touch the disc other than on its sidesIf the disc needs cleaning, gently use a clean microfiber cloth designed for use with optical equipmentRemember to back up your purchased discs to your computer so that you can burn copies if the originals become damaged (this is legal in the USA, but check your local laws if you are not in the USA).
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Choosing a brand for hard disk drives, solid-state drives, USB flash storage drives, or flash storage cards is mostly just a matter of personal preferenceFor mobile devices (including cameras), I exclusively use [https://shop.westerndigital.com/c/memory-cards/ Western Digital SanDisk] flash storage cards.  For USB flash storage drives, I primarily use [https://shop.westerndigital.com/c/usb-flash-drives/ SanDisk].  For external hard disk drives, I use [https://www.seagate.com/consumer/backup/ Seagate], [https://storage.toshiba.com/consumer-hdd/external/ Toshiba], and [https://shop.westerndigital.com/c/all-products.WD/ Western Digital].  For optical discs though, one brand does stand out above the rest, which is [https://www.verbatim.com/ Verbatim].  Verbatim holds a number of exclusive patents and licenses that sets its optical discs above the rest, and is one of only a very small number of manufacturers of M-discs.  Verbatim's continued support of M-disc technology is particularly impressive since the original developer of M-disc technology, Millenniata, has been out of business since December 2016.  Verbatim was also only one of a small number of manufacturers of [[wikipedia:LightScribe|LightScribe]] discs, but Verbatim discontinued LightScribe support after the original developer, Hewlett-Packard (HP), did.  Verbatim was purchased in June 2019 by CMC Magnetics, who also manufactures the optical discs branded for HP, Memorex, Office Depot, Philips, and Staples (amongst others). <ref><code>[[wikipedia:Verbatim (brand)]]</code></ref> <ref><code>https://www.m-chemical.co.jp/news/2019/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2019/06/21/190614-2.pdf</code></ref> <ref><code>[[wikipedia:CMC Magnetics]]</code></ref> The main advantage of Verbatim discs is in the use of their patented azo dye, which allows discs to last longerHowever, not all Verbatim-branded discs actually use the azo dye, and they need to be branded as "Azo" or "DataLifePlus" to incorporate this technology (typically at additional cost compared to the non-azo discs).  Verbatim bluray discs use a different life-extending technology called HardCoat, which is available on all Verbatim bluray discsVerbatim also manufactures gold-based "UltraLife" CDs and DVDs that are guaranteed to last for up to one hundred years (azo discs will not last that long), but bluray M-discs are cheaper per gigabyte, and last up to ten times as long (thousands instead of hundreds of years)For non-azo CDs and DVDs, there should be no significant differences between generic discs from [https://www.officedepot.com/a/browse/optical-discs/n=5+1457302/ Office Depot] or [https://www.staples.com/Blank-Media/cat_CL142807 Staples] and Verbatim-branded discs, since they are now all manufactured by the same companyHP-branded optical discs are no longer in production (formerly manufactured by CMC Magnetics for HP), so any HP-branded discs you see for sale online are from old stocks. <ref><code>https://store.hp.com/us/en/cv/accessories-filters?cat=tOrV_</code></ref> Unburned optical discs will degrade more quickly than burned optical discs, so avoid purchasing discontinued brands of optical discs such as HP if possible. <ref><code>https://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub121/sec4/</code></ref> <ref><code>http://www.osta.org/technology/cdqa13.htm</code></ref>
  
For optical-disc drives, my suggestion is to get a drive that can burn everything if possible.  "Everything" should include (at minimum) CD-RW, CD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-R DL, DVD+RW, DVD+R, DVD+R DL, BD-RE, BD-R, BD-R DL, BDXL, and BD-R M-discM-disc compatibility is the most difficult item to get, but even if you never use it, you at least have the option (I've never actually used an M-disc myself, but I like that I have the ability).  An M-disc will last for one thousand years or more, so maybe you will want to burn one before you dieEven printed books don't often last that long, so your only other option to have your work accessible to future generations might be to start chiseling stone tabletsLucky-Goldstar (LG) and Verbatim are two most popular manufacturers of M-disc drives, but I like the LG version betterThe LG M-disc drive can be used with or without a computer, so you can plug it directly into a printer or a television with a USB port to read files from optical discs, without needing a computer connection (though I haven't personally tested this feature).  Note that M-discs can be read in non-M-disc drives.  You only need the special drive to burn M-discs.
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You should never label any discs intended for archival storage.  Place the discs into a standard-sized [[wikipedia:jewel case|jewel case]] (not a "slim" jewel case) and use a sticky note to label the case instead of the disc.  [[wikipedia:inkjet-printable discs|Inkjet-printable discs]] should not be used for archival storage.  For non-archival storage, the only methods that are safe to label a disc with are either using an inkjet-printable disc or using a water-based marker labeled as safe for optical discs (<em>not</em> a Sharpie or other non-water-based permanent marker!).  Remember to never leave optical discs inside a vehicle, or exposed to heatKeep the disc inside a sealed container such as a jewel case or a CD binder/wallet whenever it is not in use (don't leave it in an optical drive).  I only trust [https://www.caselogic.com/products/other-cases/ Case Logic ProSleeve] binders/wallets for mass storage, but individual jewel cases are still much safer to use, and you should never use sleeves/wallets/binders for archival storageNever touch the disc other than on its sidesIf the disc needs cleaning, gently use a clean microfiber cloth designed for use with optical equipmentRemember to back up your purchased discs to your computer so that you can burn copies if the originals become damaged (this is legal in the USA, but check your local laws if you are not in the USA).
  
<!-- Another consideration for data longevity is susceptibility to electromagnetic pulseMost natural sources of electromagnetic pulse (including Solar storms) are not strong enough to affect even hard-disk drives, which do have their own shielding.  The greatest danger would be from an artificial source such as an act of war or terrorismOptical media is the most resistant to electromagnetic pulse, but you can attempt to shield your other data by storing it inside an old microwave (not plugged in).  Microwaves are designed to act as Faraday cages, which can be more convenient than trying to build a Faraday cage from scratch. -->
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For [[wikipedia:optical disc drives|optical disc drives]], my suggestion is to get a drive that can burn everything if possible"Everything" should include (at minimum) [[wikipedia:CD-RW|CD-RW]] (Compact Disc Rewritable), [[wikipedia:CD-R|CD-R]] (Compact Disc Recordable), [[wikipedia:DVD+RW|DVD+RW]] (Digital Versatile Disc Rewritable), DVD+R (Digital Versatile Disc Recordable Single Layer), [[wikipedia:DVD+R DL|DVD+R DL]] (Digital Versatile Disc Recordable Double Layer), [[wikipedia:BD-RE|BD-RE]] (Blu-Ray Disc Recordable-Erasable Single Layer), BD-R (Blu-Ray Disc Recordable Single Layer), BD-R DL (Blu-Ray Disc Recordable Double Layer), BDXL, and BD-R M-disc.  You should use only DVD+R and not DVD-R.  DVD+R (DVD+RW) produces less read/write errors compared to the older DVD-R (DVD-RW) format. <ref><code>[[wikipedia:DVD+R]]</code></ref> The only exception to this is for old DVD players (manufactured before February 2008) that do not have DVD+R supportM-disc compatibility is the most difficult item to get, but even if you don't plan to use it, you should at least have the option (I've never actually used an M-disc myself, but I like that I have the ability).  Gold-based CDs and DVDs can last for about one hundred years, [[wikipedia:inkjet printing|inkjet-printed]] photos and text can last for about two hundred years, but an M-disc can last for one thousand years or more, so maybe you will want to burn one before you die. <ref><code>https://www.epson.com/for-home/printers/inkjet/expression-premium-xp-7100-small-in-one-printer/p/c11ch03201/</code></ref>  Your only other option to have your work accessible to future generations might be to start chiseling stone tablets.
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I use the [https://www.lg.com/burners-drives/lg-bp50nb40-external-blu-ray-dvd-drive/ LG BP50NB40] external BDXL M-disc multidrive, which can be used with or without a computer, so you can plug it directly into a printer or television with a USB port to read files from optical discs, without needing a computer connection (though I haven't personally tested this feature).  The LG BP50NB40 is still the cheapest external BDXL M-disc drive on the market as of May 2020.  Other manufacturers of external BDXL M-disc drives in May 2020 include [https://www.buffalotech.com/products/category/optical-drives/blu-ray-writers-mediastation/ Buffalo] and [https://www.verbatim.com/prod/accessories/disc-drives--burners/external-slimline-blu-ray-writer/ Verbatim], but I like the LG version best.  Always make sure that your computer optical drive is tray-loading and not slot-loading.  If the disc becomes stuck, it can be very difficult or impossible to remove from a slot-loading drive.  Tray-loading drives have an emergency eject button so that a disc can be removed without a power supply.  Also, you cannot use drive-cleaning discs with slot-loading drives.  Note that you do not need a USB 3 connection to read or write bluray discs (or any other optical discs).  The maximum speed supported on USB 2 is 480 megabits per second (megabaud, MBd), whereas 1X read/write speed for bluray discs is 36 megabits per second. <ref><code>[[wikipedia:USB]]</code></ref>  So USB 2 allows a read/write speed of up to 12X (432 megabits per second) for bluray discs, but you should always read/write optical discs at the slowest possible speed (this means that you should only use 2X-4X CD-RW and not 4X-12X CD-RW).
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 +
== storage speeds ==
 +
 
 +
* 1.0 MBd.  floppy disks <ref><code>[[wikipedia:Floppy disk#Sizes, performance and capacity]]</code></ref>
 +
* 1.2 MBd.  1X burning speed for CD-R
 +
* 2.4 MBd.  2X burning speed for CD-RW
 +
* 4.8 MBd.  maximum speed (4X) for CD-RW
 +
* 11 MBd.  1X burning speed for DVD+R SL and DVD+R DL
 +
* 12 MBd.  USB 1
 +
* 36 MBd.  1X burning speed for BD-R SL, BD-R DL, BDXL, and BD-R SL M-disc
 +
* 44 MBd.  4X burning speed for DVD+RW SL
 +
* 62 MBd.  maximum speed (52X) for CD-R
 +
* 72 MBd.  2X burning speed for BD-RE SL
 +
* 89 MBd.  maximum speed (8X) for DVD+R DL
 +
* 140 MBd.  maximum speed (4X) for BDXL and BD-R SL M-disc
 +
* 180 MBd.  maximum speed (16X) for DVD+R SL
 +
* 220 MBd.  maximum speed (6X) for BD-R DL
 +
* 430 MBd. maximum speed (12X) for BD-R SL on USB 2
 +
* 480 MBd.  USB 2
 +
* 580 MBd.  maximum speed (16X) for BD-R SL on USB 3
 +
* 1500 MBd.  [[wikipedia:SATA|SATA]] (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) 1 <ref><code>[[wikipedia:SATA]]</code></ref>
 +
* 3000 MBd.  SATA 2
 +
* 5000 MBd.  USB 3
 +
* 6000 MBd.  SATA 3
 +
 
 +
== storage capacities ==
 +
 
 +
* 0.0012 GB.  floppy disks
 +
* 0.70 GB.  CD-R
 +
* 4.7 GB.  DVD+R SL
 +
* 8.5 GB.  DVD+R DL
 +
* 25 GB.  BD-R SL
 +
* 50 GB.  BD-R DL
 +
* 100 GB.  BDXL
 +
 
 +
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== comparison of storage media ==
 
== comparison of storage media ==
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*** no longer supported by mainstream manufacturers
 
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== references ==
 
== references ==
  
 
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[[category:IT]]
 
[[category:IT]]
 
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Revision as of 2020-05-02T01:09:28

My recommendation for general-purpose home computer data storage is to always use hard disk drives (HDDs). As of May 2020, hard disk drives typically have the lowest cost per gigabyte, and are the easiest to use and manage. Regular defragmentation and disk checks keep your hard disk drives in working order, and can predict when a failure might be imminent. Always remember to back up your data regularly. Solid-state drives (SSDs) are just not as reliable, and with frequent use, do not last as long as hard disk drives do, in addition to often costing more per gigabyte. I would only recommend solid-state drives for mobile or rugged use since they are less sensitive to vibrations and use less electrical power to operate. Solid-state drives have become popular in computers since they have faster read/write speeds than hard disk drives do, but they still cost more, do not last as long, and are less reliable. I have never had any problems with computer performance when using hard disk drives, especially when boosted with Microsoft Windows ReadyBoost on Universal Serial Bus Three (USB 3).

You should be able to differentiate your storage media between temporary or short-term data storage and long-term or permanent data storage. USB flash storage drives and flash storage cards (such as Secure Digital [SD] cards) are often the most expensive storage media to use in cost per gigabyte, but their compact size and ruggedness makes them convenient for mobile use when you want to temporarily store data. A common use for these types of storage media is to transfer files (such as digital photographs) between devices. Rewritable optical discs and floppy disks are likewise best used for temporary or short-term data storage. I would not recommend using solid-state drives (including flash storage drives) for permanent data storage.

For permanent archival storage, optical discs can be the cheapest option in cost per gigabyte per year, and are the only option available for nonrewritable data storage. As of May 2020, optical discs typically have the lowest cost per gigabyte after hard disk drives, and for millennial discs (M-discs), the lowest cost per gigabyte per year of data storage. M-discs are designed to last for up to one thousand years or more, whereas hard disk drives typically have to be replaced every five to ten years or so. [1] [2] I would recommend single-layer bluray M-discs as the best choice of format for permanent archival storage of your most critical data (such as photos or essays), but regular (nonmillennial) single-layer bluray discs are still the second best choice. When compared to compact discs (CDs) and digital versatile discs (DVDs), bluray discs (BDs) have the lowest cost per gigabyte, the lowest cost per gigabyte per year, the highest storage capacity per disc, the fastest read/write speeds, and the longest lifetimes per disc (for any bluray discs, not just bluray M-discs). A single bluray disc can hold terabytes of data, but commercially available bluray discs are only available in sizes of up to 100 gigabytes (GB) per disc. [3] [4] Note that a single BDXL (Blu-Ray Disc XL) of 100 GB can still be cheaper per gigabyte than a similarly-sized USB flash storage drive, flash storage card, or solid-state drive.

Choosing a brand for hard disk drives, solid-state drives, USB flash storage drives, or flash storage cards is mostly just a matter of personal preference. For mobile devices (including cameras), I exclusively use Western Digital SanDisk flash storage cards. For USB flash storage drives, I primarily use SanDisk. For external hard disk drives, I use Seagate, Toshiba, and Western Digital. For optical discs though, one brand does stand out above the rest, which is Verbatim. Verbatim holds a number of exclusive patents and licenses that sets its optical discs above the rest, and is one of only a very small number of manufacturers of M-discs. Verbatim's continued support of M-disc technology is particularly impressive since the original developer of M-disc technology, Millenniata, has been out of business since December 2016. Verbatim was also only one of a small number of manufacturers of LightScribe discs, but Verbatim discontinued LightScribe support after the original developer, Hewlett-Packard (HP), did. Verbatim was purchased in June 2019 by CMC Magnetics, who also manufactures the optical discs branded for HP, Memorex, Office Depot, Philips, and Staples (amongst others). [5] [6] [7] The main advantage of Verbatim discs is in the use of their patented azo dye, which allows discs to last longer. However, not all Verbatim-branded discs actually use the azo dye, and they need to be branded as "Azo" or "DataLifePlus" to incorporate this technology (typically at additional cost compared to the non-azo discs). Verbatim bluray discs use a different life-extending technology called HardCoat, which is available on all Verbatim bluray discs. Verbatim also manufactures gold-based "UltraLife" CDs and DVDs that are guaranteed to last for up to one hundred years (azo discs will not last that long), but bluray M-discs are cheaper per gigabyte, and last up to ten times as long (thousands instead of hundreds of years). For non-azo CDs and DVDs, there should be no significant differences between generic discs from Office Depot or Staples and Verbatim-branded discs, since they are now all manufactured by the same company. HP-branded optical discs are no longer in production (formerly manufactured by CMC Magnetics for HP), so any HP-branded discs you see for sale online are from old stocks. [8] Unburned optical discs will degrade more quickly than burned optical discs, so avoid purchasing discontinued brands of optical discs such as HP if possible. [9] [10]

You should never label any discs intended for archival storage. Place the discs into a standard-sized jewel case (not a "slim" jewel case) and use a sticky note to label the case instead of the disc. Inkjet-printable discs should not be used for archival storage. For non-archival storage, the only methods that are safe to label a disc with are either using an inkjet-printable disc or using a water-based marker labeled as safe for optical discs (not a Sharpie or other non-water-based permanent marker!). Remember to never leave optical discs inside a vehicle, or exposed to heat. Keep the disc inside a sealed container such as a jewel case or a CD binder/wallet whenever it is not in use (don't leave it in an optical drive). I only trust Case Logic ProSleeve binders/wallets for mass storage, but individual jewel cases are still much safer to use, and you should never use sleeves/wallets/binders for archival storage. Never touch the disc other than on its sides. If the disc needs cleaning, gently use a clean microfiber cloth designed for use with optical equipment. Remember to back up your purchased discs to your computer so that you can burn copies if the originals become damaged (this is legal in the USA, but check your local laws if you are not in the USA).

For optical disc drives, my suggestion is to get a drive that can burn everything if possible. "Everything" should include (at minimum) CD-RW (Compact Disc Rewritable), CD-R (Compact Disc Recordable), DVD+RW (Digital Versatile Disc Rewritable), DVD+R (Digital Versatile Disc Recordable Single Layer), DVD+R DL (Digital Versatile Disc Recordable Double Layer), BD-RE (Blu-Ray Disc Recordable-Erasable Single Layer), BD-R (Blu-Ray Disc Recordable Single Layer), BD-R DL (Blu-Ray Disc Recordable Double Layer), BDXL, and BD-R M-disc. You should use only DVD+R and not DVD-R. DVD+R (DVD+RW) produces less read/write errors compared to the older DVD-R (DVD-RW) format. [11] The only exception to this is for old DVD players (manufactured before February 2008) that do not have DVD+R support. M-disc compatibility is the most difficult item to get, but even if you don't plan to use it, you should at least have the option (I've never actually used an M-disc myself, but I like that I have the ability). Gold-based CDs and DVDs can last for about one hundred years, inkjet-printed photos and text can last for about two hundred years, but an M-disc can last for one thousand years or more, so maybe you will want to burn one before you die. [12] Your only other option to have your work accessible to future generations might be to start chiseling stone tablets.

I use the LG BP50NB40 external BDXL M-disc multidrive, which can be used with or without a computer, so you can plug it directly into a printer or television with a USB port to read files from optical discs, without needing a computer connection (though I haven't personally tested this feature). The LG BP50NB40 is still the cheapest external BDXL M-disc drive on the market as of May 2020. Other manufacturers of external BDXL M-disc drives in May 2020 include Buffalo and Verbatim, but I like the LG version best. Always make sure that your computer optical drive is tray-loading and not slot-loading. If the disc becomes stuck, it can be very difficult or impossible to remove from a slot-loading drive. Tray-loading drives have an emergency eject button so that a disc can be removed without a power supply. Also, you cannot use drive-cleaning discs with slot-loading drives. Note that you do not need a USB 3 connection to read or write bluray discs (or any other optical discs). The maximum speed supported on USB 2 is 480 megabits per second (megabaud, MBd), whereas 1X read/write speed for bluray discs is 36 megabits per second. [13] So USB 2 allows a read/write speed of up to 12X (432 megabits per second) for bluray discs, but you should always read/write optical discs at the slowest possible speed (this means that you should only use 2X-4X CD-RW and not 4X-12X CD-RW).

storage speeds

  • 1.0 MBd. floppy disks [14]
  • 1.2 MBd. 1X burning speed for CD-R
  • 2.4 MBd. 2X burning speed for CD-RW
  • 4.8 MBd. maximum speed (4X) for CD-RW
  • 11 MBd. 1X burning speed for DVD+R SL and DVD+R DL
  • 12 MBd. USB 1
  • 36 MBd. 1X burning speed for BD-R SL, BD-R DL, BDXL, and BD-R SL M-disc
  • 44 MBd. 4X burning speed for DVD+RW SL
  • 62 MBd. maximum speed (52X) for CD-R
  • 72 MBd. 2X burning speed for BD-RE SL
  • 89 MBd. maximum speed (8X) for DVD+R DL
  • 140 MBd. maximum speed (4X) for BDXL and BD-R SL M-disc
  • 180 MBd. maximum speed (16X) for DVD+R SL
  • 220 MBd. maximum speed (6X) for BD-R DL
  • 430 MBd. maximum speed (12X) for BD-R SL on USB 2
  • 480 MBd. USB 2
  • 580 MBd. maximum speed (16X) for BD-R SL on USB 3
  • 1500 MBd. SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) 1 [15]
  • 3000 MBd. SATA 2
  • 5000 MBd. USB 3
  • 6000 MBd. SATA 3

storage capacities

  • 0.0012 GB. floppy disks
  • 0.70 GB. CD-R
  • 4.7 GB. DVD+R SL
  • 8.5 GB. DVD+R DL
  • 25 GB. BD-R SL
  • 50 GB. BD-R DL
  • 100 GB. BDXL


references

  1. wikipedia:M-disc
  2. https://www.verbatim.com/subcat/optical-media/m-disc/
  3. wikipedia:bluray
  4. https://www.verbatim.com/subcat/optical-media/blu-ray/
  5. wikipedia:Verbatim (brand)
  6. https://www.m-chemical.co.jp/news/2019/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2019/06/21/190614-2.pdf
  7. wikipedia:CMC Magnetics
  8. https://store.hp.com/us/en/cv/accessories-filters?cat=tOrV_
  9. https://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub121/sec4/
  10. http://www.osta.org/technology/cdqa13.htm
  11. wikipedia:DVD+R
  12. https://www.epson.com/for-home/printers/inkjet/expression-premium-xp-7100-small-in-one-printer/p/c11ch03201/
  13. wikipedia:USB
  14. wikipedia:Floppy disk#Sizes, performance and capacity
  15. wikipedia:SATA